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Depressive disorders are most commonly identified by symptoms such as low mood and loss of pleasure in daily activities. This is not to say that these are the only symptoms that are used to diagnose depressive disorders, but rather a point of reference that if the criteria are met, it is best to inquire for further symptoms that may help to identify which sub-classification of depressive disorder an individual might have.
Below are some of the depressive disorders listed in DSM-5.
Sadness and depression tend to be used interchangeably in common parlance but can be separated on the basis of these questions. Does it cause significant clinical distress? Does it bring about noticeable negative outcomes in aspects of life relating to career, socialisation, education, physical and important relationships? If so, then would you like to change how you feel?
Depressive disorders are a combination of symptoms that include other signs apart from sadness and anhedonia. Below is a collection of symptoms that are expressed in different kinds of depressive disorders.
Depressive disorders have been found to frequently accompany other mental health conditions. Doctors call this issue comorbidity. According to the DSM-5, the disorders that most frequently co occur with depressive disorders include anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, and personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder.
For example, according to a 2015 study that spanned 24 countries, 46% of individuals with a lifetime major depressive disorder had a lifetime history of one or more anxiety disorders. To add to this, another paper reported lifetime comorbidity with depression to range from 20% to 70% for patients with social anxiety disorder, 50% for patients with panic disorder, 48% for patients with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 43% for patients with generalized anxiety disorder. For obsessive compulsive disorder, it was reported that one-third of individuals in a 2002 study had experienced at least one episode of major depression, and a more recent study in 2010, using a larger sample size, reported lifetime prevalence rates for major depression to be 68%. According to a 2009 study, the prevalence rate for depressive disorders for those with eating disorders ranged from 36% to 86%. According to a 2012 paper, this means many people who have BPD also experience problems with depression. One study found that about 96% of patients with BPD met criteria for a mood disorder. In this study, about 83% of patients with BPD also met criteria for major depressive disorder, and about 39% of patients with BPD also met criteria for dysthymic disorder.